Programs

Items from the APS Slide/Video Library are available for use by its Chapters and Affiliates for meetings and special events. The library is comprised of more than 130 titles, including general-interest and introductory programs, as well as specialized shows that focus on U.S. and foreign collecting themes. Programs are available as a set of slides in a Kodak Transvue 80-slide carousel (with an audio taped narration).

To ensure that your program arrives in time for your presentation please make all requests at least 4 weeks in advance of showing date.

The cost of ordering a slide program is $8.50 which covers shipping to and from your club.

Program Request Form

#2 The American Revolution: A Glorious Undertaking

The United States has issued many stamps to honor American Revolutionary leaders and events. This program consists of U.S. stamps that tell the story of our country’s journey to independence. The title refers to emotions felt by patriots and soldiers in defense of American liberty and the program reviews the background history of the war, shares details of the key strategies used, and debunks some popular myths.

Run Time: 40 minutes

#6 Fancy U.S. Cancellations

When U.S. postage stamps first appeared in 1847, the government allowed postmasters to devise cancelers for their particular offices, resulting in a wide variety of fancy cancellations. The examples depicted in this program include a host of geometric shapes; unusual designs; patriotic images; numeral and letter combinations; message markings, such as "Paid" and "Packet boat"; and more. Note: Slides are black & white.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#7 Alaska and the Mails

This program looks at the history of mail service in Alaska, from 1867 (when Alaska was still being referred to as "Russian America") to 1910. It reflects the extremely unfavorable conditions under which pioneer mail carriers performed their work, including the use of dog sleds. Among the highlights is the earliest known Alaska cover, from 1867. Note: Majority of slides are black & white.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#11 Development of Postal History of East Germany

At the end of World War II in Germany, communications had been virtually wiped out, transportation was extremely limited, and the German postal system was in a sorry state. Post office buildings had been destroyed, and any existing stocks could not be used because of the picture of Hitler or other Nazi emblems on them. This program reviews the efforts to reestablish postal service in East Germany, from the early days of the Russian occupation to the formation of the German Democratic Republic in 1949.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#12 Development of Postal History of West Germany: French Occupation

Under the same conditions described in the summary for slide program 11, this program reviews the efforts to reestablish postal service in the French Zone of occupation. Unlike East Germany, however, in the West many separate postal administrative units operated independently.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#13 Development of Postal History of West Germany: U.S. & British Occupation

(See also synopses of Programs 11 and 12.) This program reviews the efforts to reestablish postal service in the U.S. and British Zones of occupation. In these zones, things were somewhat better than in others, with much less confusion than in the Russian Zone, and many fewer separate postal units than in the French Zone.

Run Time: 23 minutes

#20 The Frank Atherton Collection of Hawaiian Stamps

The famous Atherton Collection is shown in this program, beginning with the first Hawaiian stamps (called the Missionaries) and their successors (the Numerals), and continuing through the stamp issues of the late 1800s, many of which feature Hawaiian royalty, landmarks, and symbols. Also covered in the program are essays and proofs, postal stationery, and postal markings.

Run Time: 39 minutes

#21 Yugoslavia: Provisional Issues of 1918-1921

At the end of World War I in 1918, the old Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed and was replaced, in part, by the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, later known as Jugoslavia, or Yugoslavia. Early on, no new stamps were readily available, nor were there suitable printing establishments. As a result, old empire stamps were overprinted and used as provisionals.

Run Time: 24 minutes

#22 Yugoslavia: Regular Issues of 1921-1941

(See also summary of program 21) This program deals with the regular issues of the new country, which were introduced in 1921 and continued through 1941, when the country was occupied by Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria. It also reviews how the transition in name (from the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia, in 1931) affected stamp issues.

Run Time: 27 minutes

#27 Stamp Collecting Basics: A Learner's Album

This program replaces APS' old #27: PHILATELIC HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS. Like its predecessor, this program serves as an introduction to (or review of) various types of philatelic material, such as errors, precancels, holograms, and first flight covers, as well as terms that relate to stamp production, such as watermarks, rouletting, and se-tenants. The program features clear visuals, and updated script and narration.

Run Time: 27 minutes

#29 The Pan-American Exposition: Selections From the Adolph Steeg Collection

The Pan-American Exposition took place in Buffalo, New York, in 1901, and produced a wealth of philatelic material. This program discusses the stamps issued to commemorate the event, illustrating many attractive covers and cancellations that promoted or originated from it.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#33 How to Collect Air Mail Covers

This program introduces air mail cover collecting; describes the varieties of air mail service, as well as first flights and other special events; and provides ideas for collecting possibilities.

Run Time: 35 minutes

#34 The August Dietz Collection of Confederate Stamps

'When the Southern states seceded from the Union in 1861, the new nation was cut off from an established postal system and a supply of stamps and related materials. This program reviews how the Confederate States dealt with this abrupt transition and its many related problems, and also surveys Confederate stamps and postal history.

Run Time: 42 minutes

#35 Canal Zone Gems

The material covered in this program is from the period beginning in 1903, when the United States began to lease the Canal Zone from Panama, to 1928, when the Canal Zone started issuing its own definitive stamps rather than overprinting U.S. stamps. The effects of the Canal Zone's political situation on its postal history and stamps are of interest. Emphasis is on errors and overprints, as well as postage dues and air mail stamps.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#36 Cancellations and Usages of The Norway Skilling Issues, 1855-1875

With the issuance of Norway's first stamp in 1855, cancellations distinctive to that country were introduced. This program looks at the cancels used on the skilling-valued stamps, and at the usages. Many covers showing stamps used to foreign destinations are shown. Postal rates, negotiated with other countries individually, were complex, changed frequently, and could vary depending on the route or means of transportation. All this ended in 1875 when the Universal Postal Union introduced uniform rates for international postage.

Run Time: 23 minutes

#38 Errors, Varieties, Freaks, and Oddities of U.S. Stamps

This program begins by defining the terms errors, varieties, freaks, and oddities, and their relation to the stamp production process. Illustrations provide examples of each category. Each category occurs mainly when something goes wrong in the stamp production process, but the results form an interesting collecting specialty. This informative program is ideal for general philatelic audiences, whatever their collecting interests.

Run Time: 40 minutes

#39 Postally Used Valentines of the Nineteenth Century

The first half of the nineteenth century was the golden age of printed valentines. This program is rich with examples of extravagant, handmade, colorful, lacy valentines (with accompanying sentiments) from that age. Nearly every example actually traveled in the mails. But this program is not only for the incurably romantic. Postal historians will find markings of great interest on envelopes, as will those interested in Civil War items.

Run Time: 55 minutes

#40 Number Ones of the World

This program begins by asking what exactly constitutes the designation Number One: Is it the actual first stamp issued by a particular country, or only the one listed in a stamp catalogue as number "1"? The "first" stamp issues of many countries are then reviewed, beginning with the Penny Black in 1840 and ending with the Dutch Indies first issue of 1864. Also explored are the conditions in various countries that led them to begin issuing stamps when they did.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#41 Stamp Printing Methods

Identifying and distinguishing between the different stamp printing methods can be a difficult process. Utilizing magnified views of stamps, this program differentiates the primary methods in an understandable way. Included are tips on what to look for to identify a stamp's print process.

Run Time: 45 minutes

#42 The U.S. 1851-1857 Issues

The 1851-1857 U.S. stamp issues were the consequence of the Postal Act of 1851, which primarily led to reduced postage rates. This program illustrates the stamps of this issue on covers, showing a variety of markings and reflecting the need for the various denominations; e.g., for foreign destinations, circular-rate material, etc. The stamps themselves are then examined individually, including types and subtypes.

Run Time: 47 minutes

#43 U.S. Postmasters' Provisionals

U.S. Postmasters' Provisionals are stamps issued by individual postmasters beginning in 1845 to prepay postage on letters. They were sanctioned by the government for use until regular government-issued stamps became available in 1847. Covering everything from the best-known provisional (New York) to the rarest (New Haven), this program gives insight into a relatively unfamiliar subject. It features both close-up views of stamps and entire covers.

Run Time: 39 minutes

#45 The Tale of The Kicking Mule Cancel

Of all fancy cancels, the Kicking Mule stands out as possibly the most popular, or at least the one receiving more publicity than any other (some of it erroneous). This program traces the use of the Mule cancel, which began in Port Townsend, Washington, in 1880, and spread to other cities as well. Varieties such as the Bushy-Tailed Mules are discussed, as well as fake and facsimile Mules.

Run Time: 45 minutes

#46 Cats on Stamps

This topical program was produced by a noncollector and shows the wide appeal of topical collecting to the eyes of people interested less in the stamps, and more in particular subjects. Through the stamps of many nations, viewers will see the cat playing many roles -- in various cultures; at crucial points in history; in literature, legend, and real life. Also shown are famous friends of cats and infamous foes. In addition to being a good example of topical collecting, it also is an interesting general-interest presentation.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#47 Ships on Stamps

This program journeys into the world of ships through the ages. It also covers the development of water transportation, from the earliest man- and wind-propelled vessels to modern steam-, diesel-, and nuclear-powered ones. Like Program 46, this program is both a solid topical presentation and of general interest to a mixed audience.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#48 The Stamps and Postal History of Guatemala: 1871-1947

The author makes a case for using Guatemala's stamps as a starting point for the casual collector-turned-philatelist, with challenging plate varieties, overprints, and inverts to explore. Many covers, close-up views of the stamps, and an array of fancy cancellations are shown.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#49 The U.S. 1847s

This program covers the first U.S. postage stamp issue, which consisted of a 5-cent and 10-cent value. On-cover examples of this first pair of stamps illustrate early U.S. postal history, such as route-agent, steamboat, and railroad markings. Stamp plate and color varieties also are discussed and shown, as well as early methods of cancellation, such as manuscript and grid cancels.

Run Time: 28 minutes

#50 Canada's Registry System: 1827-1893

Beginning with the earliest example of Canadian registered mail postal instructions, from 1827, and the first actual piece, from that same year, the development of the registry system is documented. A review of related postal history includes examples of early usages, international pieces, usages that reflect improvements in the system, as well as rates and the stamps themselves.

Run Time: 47 minutes

#52 The Universal Postal Union

Chaos reigned throughout the international mails before 1875, when the UPU was formed to standardize and regulate international mail. Many interesting international mail covers are shown from between 1866 and 1966, illustrating how the nations complied with the new standards for rate, weight, and color. The transition period in particular produced some interesting variations and examples of noncompliance with the regulations.

Run Time: 35 minutes

#53 Stamps of the Trans-Mississippi Issue of 1898

The second set of pictorial stamps issued by the U.S. celebrated the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898 at Omaha, Nebraska. The stamps are examined first individually, and then shown on attractive, postally-used covers with advertising, promotional, and patriotic cachets. Highlights include views of the bicolored die essays of the nine values.

Run Time: 34 minutes

#54 The Story of the Penny Black

The Penny Black, a novel device for the prepayment of postage, resulted from Great Britain's postal reform of 1840. This program covers many aspects of that famous first adhesive postage stamp. It briefly reviews the conditions that stimulated Rowland Hill to create the stamp, then delves into the many fascinating aspects of the Penny Black itself: the contest for the stamp's design; plate layout; engraving and printing processes; the many varieties and plate flaws; various forms of the Maltese Cross cancellation, etc. A highlight is a view of the only known first day cover with a block of ten of this stamp.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#55 The Canadian Maple Leaf Issue of 1897-1899

The short-lived Maple Leaf issue may be the most neglected of all 19th-century Canadian definitives. It replaced the long-lived "Small Queens" definitives in 1897. The eight values of the issue are examined individually and on covers. Various cancellations and postmarks also are reviewed.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#56 The "Wavy Lines" Typographed Denmark Issues

The wavy-line design of the Danish definitive series of 1905 is symbolic of the three waterways that separate the main Danish islands. The design was so popular that it has been used, in one format or another, to the present day. This program examines the various denominations, shows examples on covers, then looks at the many common printing flaws of the issue, as well as varieties.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#57 France: First Issue, 1849-1850

This program covers the history of the issue (including the origin of the Ceres design) and explores the techniques used in its production. Each denomination of the issue is examined and the range of shades of each are noted. Covers display a variety of cancels (including the standard grid, the numerals, and the Paris Star), as well as postal markings. The program ends with a look at varieties and forgeries.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#58 The Black Jack

The 2-cent U.S. stamp of 1863-1867, commonly referred to as the Black Jack, features a portrait of President Andrew Jackson. This is a popular stamp among philatelists because of its many varieties: grilled and ungrilled, specimens, control-number overprints, bad perforations, off-centering, and color differences. On-cover examples show the Black Jack meeting various rates alone and in combination with other stamps. Highlights include fancy cancels on Black Jacks, bisects, and Black Jacks used on advertising covers and on foreign mail.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#59 The Postal History of The Commune Revolution in Paris, 1871

The Commune Revolution, among other effects, provided a test for the mail service. The national postal headquarters were transferred out of Paris (as a strategy to deprive the city of mail and thus cause confusion) and the revolutionaries set up a makeshift operation. The result was a wealth of postal history, with mail blockades, delays, and related markings; local carriers and stamps; conflicts between the national, revolutionary, and German-occupied French postal services; and conflicts between the national service and Parisians who did not support the revolution and did not like being cut off from the rest of France.

Run Time: 35 minutes

#61 The Postage Stamps of Prince Edward Island

As a British North American colony, Prince Edward Island became the last to issue stamps of its own, in 1861. It produced a small number of issues before joining the Canadian Confederation in 1873. This program deals with the stamps, which were few in number, but rich in varieties. It also illustrates related postal history, starting with the stampless era. Examples of covers include both domestic and international ones, registered mail, varying rate usages, and bisected stamps.

Run Time: 31 minutes

#62 A History of Hawaii as Told Through Stamps

The tumultuous physical history of Hawaii, with its earthquakes and volcanoes, is matched by an exciting cultural heritage and political history. These include centuries of life as an isolated kingdom; visits by ocean explorers and missionaries; transitions from being a kingdom to a monarchy, then a republic, then an American territory, and finally an American state. This program covers that history, as shown on the stamps of Hawaii, the United States, and other countries. It also tells the story of Hawaiian stamps themselves, and related postal history.

Run Time: 38 minutes

#63 Black Jacks in The Foreign Mails

(See also Program 58)<p>The U.S. 2-cent black stamp of 1863 to 1867 with a portrait of President Andrew Jackson was in use before the formation of the Universal Postal Union, when there were almost as many different postal rates as there were countries. This program features Black Jack covers destined for 50 different countries, and shows the various rates, routes, and combinations of this interesting period. Ship markings are prevalent, and with so much confusion over the rates, other markings (such as "Too Late" and "SHORT PAID") also are common.

Run Time: 51 minutes

#64 Swedish Postal History

Using Sweden as a framework, the author illustrates how the study of postal history can broaden one's knowledge about a country's political and social history. The evolution of Swedish postal history began early, in the sixteenth century, before the appearance of adhesive stamps. The program focuses on the many different cancellation types, and also emphasizes postal markings. Of special interest are markings on Swedish covers from times of war, which reflect the re-routing of mail around the affected areas, and covers from the nineteenth century, when serious epidemics raged and letters were pierced and fumigated to prevent the spread of disease.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#65 The Division of the Union

This program reviews the division of the Union (a long, slow process) and the resulting Civil War from a postal history point of view. It begins with a survey of campaign and patriotic covers (some featuring propaganda cartoons) that trace the developing political events and the emerging gulf between the two sides. As the Union divided, great changes occurred in the Post Office Departments of both sides. The North demonetized old stamps, and both sides issued new ones, with the South first relying on provisionals. The different stamps are discussed, as are many covers showing the changes in mail service, as well as how postal customers had to improvise because of stamp and paper shortages.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#66 Confederate Postal History: The Harrie Mueller Collection

While postal operations of both sides were much affected by the Civil War, that of the Confederacy had to start from scratch, in a nation blockaded and put on the defensive early in the war. Using selected items from the Harrie Mueller collection, this program focuses on the development of Confederate postal service, including Postmasters' Provisionals, regular issues, patriotic covers, prisoner-of-war mail, and more.

Run Time: 44 minutes

#67 Civil War Federal Patriotics

During the Civil War, a new idea developed: to show one's colors on the outside of envelopes, and sometimes on the enclosed stationery. This program reviews some patriotic covers that resulted, concentrating on those of the Union side. This review also provides a survey of the political, military, and social history of the times.

Run Time: 36 minutes

#68 The Cape Triangles

The Cape of Good Hope Triangles were in use from 1853 to 1863. After revealing the reason for the unusual shape, this program presents an overview of the various denominations and printings. It covers the many color varieties, as well as differences in sharpness of the image, produced by two printing companies. This issue also is known for its interesting examples of chemical reactions to the ink in the stamp, such as the so-called ivory figure phenomenon. Also discussed are a locally produced emergency provisional called the Woodblocks, which feature errors that are eagerly sought by collectors today.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#69 the Stamps of Costa Rica

Since its first issue, in 1863, Cost Rica has offered collectors many interesting aspects, including many overprinted provisional issues (for instance, telegraph stamps were overprinted to be used as regular postage); revenues overprinted to produce the first air mail stamps; and a set of overprints produced when Costa Rica changed its currency basis. The resulting varieties are discussed as well. Unusual items include stamps printed to honor special events that were never held, and a set of stamps issued for use only in a single Costa Rican province.

Run Time: 40 minutes

#71 Postal Stationery Used by The Canadian Pacific Railway

Postal stationery printed to private order was frequently used by companies to help promote and advertise their organizations and services. One company that effectively used such stationery was the Canadian Pacific Railway. The stationery illustrations featured many of the hotels, travel resorts, and scenic attractions either owned or served by that large Canadian railroad. Related postal history is discussed also.

Run Time: 36 minutes

#72 U.S. Private-Die Proprietary Stamp Issues

U.S. private-die proprietary stamps, also called "match and medicine" stamps, were the result of the Revenue Act of 1862, which helped to fund the Civil War. Tax stamps were required on saleable items such as matches, canned fruit, patent medicines, perfumery and playing cards. The dies were the property of the proprietors. This program reviews those stamps and their usage.

Run Time: 42 minutes

#73 The 10-cent Frame Line of The Confederate States of America

This program details how this stamp featuring Jefferson Davis was produced and used. Each of the 100 entries in the initial plate was flawed and subjected to hand-tooling, so there were 100 different plate varieties of this single stamp! The examples shown came from the Robert Wiseman collection, which included 81 of the 97 identified plate positions.

Run Time: 38 minutes

#74 French Balloon Posts

During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, German forces encircled Paris, cutting it off from the rest of France. To maintain communications with the outside during the siege, postal authorities used gas-filled balloons to carry mail out of the city. More than sixty ascents were made, and most were successful. This program reviews the balloon post service and shows examples of flown covers. Also covered are other ways mail was sent out of (as well as into) Paris, including by diplomatic courier, smuggling, pigeons, and even by copper balls floated across rivers.

Run Time: 43 minutes

#75 The Doctoring of Postage Stamps - Philatelists Beware!

As soon as there were postage stamps, there were forgeries, meant to defraud both postal authorities and philatelists. Doctoring of stamps, on the other hand, is aimed solely at the philatelist, and usually is done to hide flaws and repairs on premium stamps or to produce fake varieties. Unfortunately, it is difficult to recognize such doctoring. This program covers some of the methods used to alter stamps, especially the removal or changing of colors, and is useful for advanced collectors who have an interest in stamp varieties and expertizing. Note: program is based on South African stamps.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#76 The Mails of The Graf Zeppelin To and From Palestine

The flights of the airship Graf Zeppelin - L.Z. 127 to Palestine began in 1929 with its nonstop trip from Germany to Palestine and back. For the first time, a special post office was established on the ship, and mail posted on the cruise received special cancels. Mailbags were dropped over various cities, and the covers inside received appropriate arrival markings. Original photographs of some aspects of the flights are shown, as well as maps that mark the various routes flown. Many flight covers are shown. Some are gems, and others are forgeries, whose tell-tale signs are described.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#77 The Wide, Wide World of Postal Stationery, Part I: An Introduction

As one of three related titles (Programs 77, 78, and 79), this program shows, in particular, the forerunners or early items in the field, as well as general categories of stationery. A variety of examples are depicted, including the smallest and largest items, and singular or unusual types. These pieces, given the stories behind their usage, make for interesting viewing.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#78 The Wide, Wide World of Postal Stationery, Part II: Singular and Unususal Types

This program, one of three related titles (Programs 77, 78, and 79), focuses on unusual types of stationery introduced in the first program in the series. Many of these exist because the postal systems in many countries were part of the combined postal, telegraph, and telephone systems, so many of the items served multiple uses. Included are formula cards, special purpose stationery, and more.

Run Time: 43 minutes

#79 The Wide, Wide World of Postal Stationery, Part III: Multiple Imprintings and Advertisements, Topicals, Etc.

This program, one of three related titles (Programs 77, 78, and 79), focuses on postal stationery associated with multiple imprintings and advertisements, as well as topical and special events. Included are pieces reissued and overprinted with new values (and sometimes designs), items reissued with additional printed-to-private-order imprintings, and a range of multiple-advertising imprints, as well as those relating to topical subjects and special events.

Run Time: 35 minutes

#81 The World's Columbian Exposition

The World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893, was intended as a commemoration of 400 years in the progress of mankind. The Exposition was a showcase of great inventions and new ideas. This program discusses the set of U.S. stamps issued to commemorate the Exposition. Examples of postal usage are shown, along with covers, cancellations, and collateral items that promoted or originated from the event. Viewers receive not only a philatelic review, but an interesting look at the culture of the times.

Run Time: 54 minutes

#82 Postal Rarities From The National Postage Stamp Collection

The National Postage Stamp Collection comprises millions of stamps, covers, essays, and proofs. It is worldwide in scope, but with emphasis on U.S. postal history and postal items. Some of the gems shown are a French parchment letter of 1381; Great Britain's Penny Black; U.S. Postmaster Provisional stamps; the U.S. 1847s; the first metered mail; Pony Express and Wells Fargo and Company covers; balloon, bicycle, pigeon, and Zeppelin mail; and the story behind the U.S. Mother's Day stamp. In lieu of a personal visit to the museum, this program provides a good short tour.

Run Time: 54 minutes

#83 First Day Cover Collecting: A Primer

For those intrigued but confused about first day cover collecting, this program answers many common questions. The history of this specialty area is also reviewed, and suggestions are shared about how to make a first day cover. Types of collections are covered, as well as how to organize a collection.

Run Time: 22 minutes

#84 Fascinating Highlights of First Day Cover Collecting

This program provides fresh ideas for adding material to beginning or existing first day cover collections and offers various approaches to collecting first day covers. Types of collections shown include early (but expensive!) first day covers; first cachets of the various makers; and "official," hand-illustrated, and autographed cachets. Slogan and special cancellations add a special touch, as do create-your-own cachets.

Run Time: 25 minutes

#85 Seventy Years of "Firsts" on First Day Covers

This program shows collectors many of the "firsts" that exist on U.S. first day covers. Examples include the first "Mail Early" slogan cancel; the first coil stamp on a first day cover; and the first cachet on a first day cover. Errors and unusual situations in FDCs are explained and illustrated.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#86 Classic U.S. Air-Mail Covers

Given that fewer than a dozen known first day covers exist for the first three U.S. air mail stamps, the focus of this program necessarily is on first-flight covers. Beginning with a cover bearing the first U.S. air mail stamp, issued in 1918, the various elements that might be found on a first-flight cover are reviewed: the time in the cancel; the words "FIRST TRIP" in the cancel; various handstamps; special delivery control numbers; and autographs. Backstamps on covers are particularly significant for these flights, as they pinpointed the time of arrival. The eventual reduction of air mail rates is covered, and for the later issues, many first day covers are shown.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#87 First Day Covers of The Postal People Issue of 1973

The Postal People U.S. issue of 1973 was an interesting set of stamps and a very controversial one. It was interesting because it was such a large set and because it featured, for the first time on a U.S. stamp, printing on the reverse side. The length of the set was part of the controversy. The introduction of this set marked the second time the Postal Service arranged for first day cancels at thousands of locations instead of only one.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#88 The 7-1-71 Affair: The Largest First Day Cover Issuance in U.S. History

On July 1, 1971, in the wake of the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970, the U.S. Postal Service was "born." A stamp was issued in honor of the new USPS, and 39,531 facilities were authorized to cancel first day covers. This was the first multilocation first day, and also the first time that the postal authority gave away cacheted covers. This birthday may have been one of the biggest headaches to date for the Postal Service, with many cases of early issuance, backdating, and failure of local post offices to follow instructions. Many changes in mail service also were taking place, and are reflected on the covers shown.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#90 Postal History Panorama of Post World War II Germany

By the end of World War II, in 1945, much of Germany had been reduced to rubble. In their dramatic rebuilding effort following the war, the Germans retraced every step in the evolution of a postal system in the short span of several years -- from the courier mails of centuries ago to the postal automation of recent years. This program reviews that redevelopment process, emphasizing postal history highlights, definitive stamp issues, and the interesting history of post-war Germany.

Run Time: 43 minutes

#91 U.S. Glider Mail Flights

The 1920s, the early days of experimental mail-carrying flights, were a time of daring innovation and keen competition, and gliders were among the aircraft tested. This program focuses on the special flight cancels and covers from these glider flights, which were immensely popular for a time. Many covers are shown, as well as old photographs of aircraft and the pilots who guided them. The program concludes with the space shuttle Challenger flight in 1983, which carried souvenir mail.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#92 The French Third Republic, Part I: the Siege of Paris, Emergency Issues, and Balloon Posts

Wartime imposes great constraints on mail service, and requires postal officials to exercise creativity just to provide stamps, let alone service. This program, one of two related titles (Programs 92 and 93), deals with the siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. To provide stamps for the blockaded city, old plates were used for reprintings, even as stocks of existing "politically incorrect" stamps were used out of necessity. This resulted in a wide range of new varieties and postal usages, detailed and illustrated here.

Run Time: 35 minutes

#93 The French Third Republic, Part II: Postal Service in Wary and Revolution

As does its related program (No. 92), this one deals with the siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. To provide mail service for the blockaded city, officials had to use a variety of new methods, including gas-filled balloons, hollow metal balls floated down rivers, carrier pigeons, and smuggling. These methods are reviewed, and stamps and examples of postal usage are illustrated.

Run Time: 31 minutes

#94 Detecting Forgeries

Just four months after the issuance of the first adhesive postage stamp in 1840, postal inspectors discovered a letter with a counterfeit stamp on it. Since then, countless stamps have been forged -- not only rare or expensive stamps, but common ones as well. This program reviews the basics of forgeries, along with some of the techniques that collectors need to identify them. Postal forgeries, intended to defraud the post office of revenue, are covered, as well as philatelic ones, aimed at stamp collectors. This highly popular program, something of a detective story, also shows why today forgeries are as popular with some collectors as are genuine stamps.

Run Time: 57 minutes

#95 Rotary International on Stamps

Since Rotary International was founded in 1905, many countries have honored this worldwide service organization on stamps. This program reviews those stamps and also special cancellations. Aspects of the Rotary organization itself also appear, such as the cogged-wheel emblem, the founder Paul Harris, and the headquarters building.

Run Time: 24 minutes

#96 The Soviet Voskhod Space Program in Philately

One element of the "space race" between the former Soviet Union and the United States was a small manned Russian space project called Voskhod. In the mid-1960s, at the height of the race, its two missions achieved several spectacular firsts, including the first multi-man flight and the first walk in space. The stories behind these flights, however, are even more interesting. Former prison-camp inmates directed the program, fighting impossible deadlines and forced to improvise equipment without regard to even basic safety (e.g., the three-man crew went into space in a capsule designed for one, and without space suits). This program reviews that project's philatelic commemor-ations, and also tells an amazing story of human effort.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#97 The Stamps and Postal History of Western Australia

Beginning with a cover from the stampless period in the 1830s, this program reviews covers with manuscript markings and handstamps, as well as a variety of stamps, markings, and cancels. One of the great rarities of the world (and Western Australia's most famous error), the Inverted Frame, is shown, as well as a later famous error of color. Also covered are revenues, stamps called Imperial Punctures, postal stationery, and forgeries. Of special interest are the local stamps of a cycle mail express company that operated in the gold rush days of 1897.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#98 Plate Number Coils

This popular program deals with those U.S. coil stamps that, for the first time, had the plate number included as part of the stamp design. The first such stamp was issued in 1981 and, like the others that would follow, attracted considerable interest from collectors. Short press runs made many individual plate numbers elusive and more desirable. Reviewing the first decade of PNCs and their varieties, the printing and production methods employed (and the reasons they were used), as well as related postal usage, the author provides a solid introduction to a modern area of specialized collecting and an interesting look at stamp technology today.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#99 The First Five Years of Government Issued Air Mail Stamps of The World

In 1917, the first official air mail stamp was issued by the government of Italy. During the next five years, 27 countries followed suit. This program covers the first air mail stamp issues (which were overprints); the world's first stamp printed expressly for air mail purposes (produced by the United States in 1918); stamps of many countries up through 1922; and many covers. In addition, stories are told about the early mail flights themselves. (Note: 135 slides come in 2 carousels.)

Run Time: 48 minutes

#101 United Nations Philately

The U.N. stamps in this program illustrate the development of the United Nations over the years and provide a tour of the three U.N. headquarters in New York, Geneva, and Vienna. Since the U.N.'s beginning in 1945 and the first definitive issue of 1951, many commemoratives have been issued reflecting the organization's character. Besides the stamps, this program looks at special cancellations, first day of issue folders, souvenir sheets, and postal stationery.

Run Time: 38 minutes

#102 Underrated First Day Covers

This fresh and enticing look at the possibilities of first day cover collecting displays interesting material, such as illegal, irregular, and unusual usages on first day covers; errors in stamp designs and first day cancellations; creative stamp combinations; reused covers; and imaginative cachets.

Run Time: 28 minutes

#103 The American Revolution Bicentennial on International First Day Covers

Showing our nation's bicentennial through foreign stamps is a fresh approach to this familiar subject. Countries around the world marked the bicentennial of the American Revolution by producing commemorative stamps, special cachets, first day covers, and cancellations. The stamp designs utilize everything from famous paintings, flags, and coins of the period to ships, buildings, and military garb. Some of the vignettes also reflect interesting stories of the American Revolution.

Run Time: 41 minutes

#104 The 1932 Winter Olympics on First Day Covers

The Lake Placid, New York, Olympics were the first ever held in the United States, and a commemorative stamp featuring a ski-jumper was issued. The stamp's design received considerable criticism, however, as did many of the related cachets. This program reviews the many different first day covers created to commemorate the games. Cachets feature typical Lake Placid scenes, such as the 19 winter sports events and the Olympic arena.

Run Time: 31 minutes

#105 Maritime Mail, 1907 to 1980: Naval Cancellations

The world of maritime mail is a diverse one, involving naval ships, government and commercial vessels, and even military bases. This program concentrates on each of the above areas with the exception of commercial ships and markings (covered in Program 106). On-cover examples are interesting in them-selves and for their association with modern military history.

Run Time: 43 minutes

#106 Maritime Mail, 1907 to 1980: Commercial Markings

(See also Program 105.) This program concentrates on commercial ships and markings, with on-cover examples including mail of ocean liners, river and lake boats, paquebots, and more.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#108 The 6.3-cent Story: The First U.S. Bulk Mail Stamp

The 6.3-cent stamp of 1974 was the first U.S. stamp issued for bulk mail use only, as well as the first nonrevenue issue with a decimal fraction denomination. It was an experimental product, designed to test whether the presence of a stamp (versus a printed "Postage Paid" indicium) would attract more attention from bulk mail recipients. It was also the first special-use stamp to be issued in a modified form for collectors. This program reviews the story of its issuance; stamp varieties; the precancellations and first day covers associated with it; as well as its replacement by a 7.9-cent issue.

Run Time: 20 minutes

#109 Irish Philately

The story of Irish philately is of interest not only as postal history, but as it reflects that country's turbulent political history. The program begins with stampless covers; early and erratic postal service; and a variety of interesting cancellations and postal markings. It ends with attractive modern stamp issues and evidence of the present efficient postal service.

Run Time: 34 minutes

#110 Iran After the Shahs: A Revolution on Stamps

During the 1970s and 1980s, Iran became a dramatic participant on the world stage. Its stamps echo the history and themes of the revolution in Iran, offer brilliant symbolic images, and portray a stimulating story of a culture in conflict, both with itself and the rest of the world.

Run Time: 39 minutes

#111 Stamp Technology Basics

This very popular back-to-the-basics program has been revised, with more succinct definitions and new easy-to-understand illustrations and color visuals. The revision includes references to new technologies in stamp production.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#112 Holy Land Israel Revenues

This program on the interesting but little-known revenue stamps of Israel and Palestine provides an overview beginning in 1917. A variety of revenues are shown indicating payment of sales tax, income tax, luxury tax, and more. They are displayed on bank checks, exit permits, and a variety of other documents.

Run Time: 23 minutes

#113 Luminescent U.S. First Day Covers

Luminescent tagging refers to stamps coated with a phosphorescent material, allowing pieces of mail to be "read" by handling equipment. This, in turn, allows for high-speed canceling and sorting. This program reviews the development of the tagging process, along with a survey of the tagged issues (both regular and air mail) that have appeared on U.S. first day covers. Illustrations include items photographed under ultraviolet light.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#115 Stamps and Postal History of South Australia

This program reviews a representative selection of the postage stamps issued by South Australia between 1855 and 1913, as well as the postal history from 1837 to 1919. A variety of stamps are shown and discussed, with heavy emphasis on printing technology. Resulting varieties and errors are covered, as are official stamps and postal stationery. The program then delves into postal history, including early post offices and services, postal markings, and how mail was transported overseas to Great Britain.

Run Time: 32 minutes

#116 Nursing: A Distinguished History on Postage Stamps

Since the first adhesive postage stamp in 1840, more than 2,000 stamps have been issued by more than 180 countries to commemorate prominent nurses and milestones in nursing's history. This program displays many of those stamps, and also reviews events such as the founding of the Red Cross, the development of disaster relief services, and the improvement of hospital conditions and practices. This program is a rewarding human-interest tale while showing a fine topical collection.

Run Time: 25 minutes

#117 Collecting First Day Covers Topically - The 1985 U.S. Social Security Issue

This program includes a wide variety of examples: cachets promoting the Social Security Act; ones replicating the stamp or people associated with the Act; or those dealing with different aspects relating to Social Security. The program was created to demonstrate that a topical collector can enjoy and benefit from collecting FDCs, and also informs viewers about Social Security in general.

Run Time: 22 minutes

#118 Basics of Stamp Exhibiting

Many collectors would like to become involved with stamp exhibiting, but are not sure how to begin. This program introduces the basic concepts of stamp exhibiting and illustrates, by example, many useful and important techniques. The author takes the viewer from step one (deciding on a subject) to the final phase, which involves editing, revising, and improving the end result. This is done in a clear, easy-to-understand manner, which is one reason why this program is among the most popular titles in the library.

Run Time: 27 minutes

#119 Stamps of The Steamship Companies: West Indies, Central and South America

A century ago, countries active in international shipping, or those with well-developed internal waterways, entered into mail contracts with steamship lines or individual ship owners to provide transportation for a part of the mails. Other countries depended on ships that called at their ports for their mail services. This program and a companion title (Program 120) are concerned with those ships that carried mail between their ports of call for a fee, and whose owners or captains issued their own private adhesive stamps to facilitate prepayment of these fees. This program particularly deals with those ships operating in the West Indies and Latin America. Examples of the stamps involved are shown, as well as cancellations and postal usage.

Run Time: 33 minutes

#120 Stamps of The Steamship Companies: Eastern Europe, The Black Sea, and Other Areas

As does Program 119, this program focuses on those ships that carried mail between their ports of call for a fee, and whose owners or captains issued their own private adhesive stamps to facilitate prepayment of these fees. This program particularly deals with those ships operating in the Eastern European, Black Sea, and other areas. Examples of the stamps involved are shown, as well as cancellations and postal usage.

Run Time: 44 minutes

#121 "Around The World In 80"…Stamps?

This program is taken from a popular exhibit that was based on the novel by Jules Verne. It takes viewers on an exciting trip by a variety of means, ranging from dog sled to tramp steamer. We are treated to a number of wonders, both natural and manmade. Stops include Niagara Falls, Dunkerque, Pamplona, Casablanca, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Khyber Pass, Bora Bora, La Paz, and more, all shown on stamps! Not a typical philatelic slide program, this one talks less about the stamps and more about the geography, history, and even folklore of places around the world. It is an ideal program to show for a change of pace, or for meetings when you will have beginners, noncollectors, or family members in the audience.

Run Time: 44 minutes

#122 Up in The Air: Design Errors on Aircraft and Space Stamps

"What goes up must come down," and while almost all aircraft stay up until they are supposed to come down, the same cannot be said for aircraft and space designs on stamps. This program combines a popular topical subject with the interesting field of design errors. Based on a popular exhibit of a similar name, it features a wide variety of errors including misspellings, missing propellers, and even missing cockpits! The stamps will quickly have your audience looking ahead for clues and laughing at some of the worst mistakes. This interesting program is ideal for general audiences.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#123 Bird Boo-Boos, Ballyhoo, and Balder-Dash: Design Errors on Bird Stamps

This program combines a popular topical subject with the interesting field of design errors. Based on an exhibit of a similar name, it deals with spelling errors, incorrect identification of bird types, inaccurate illustrations, erroneous depictions of bird behavior, and more. It is ideal for general audiences.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#124 Blow the Whistle: Design Errors on Sport Stamps

When someone commits a foul in the sports field, there is usually a loud "tweet" from the person wearing the striped shirt. In this program, our philatelic referee is blowing the whistle on a variety of design errors on sports stamps. Whether resulting from lack of knowledge, carelessness, or lack of symmetry of design, an error is still an error. Your audience will soon be looking for hockey goals without nets, inexcusable basketball fouls, impossible swimming dives, fish snared with invisible lines, and other antics. This program is based on a popular exhibit and is ideal for general audiences.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#125 Sing Along With Stamps

This program definitely is not one of our typical titles. Based on the author's very popular and award-winning exhibit of the same name, this program is designed for audience participation. It features a number of stamps, each suggesting a song. The music ranges from popular mainstays of the 1940s and 1950s up through the Beatles and even beyond. An excellent way to show this program would be at a spouses-and-family-night event. Based on clues ranging from titles to a few words of lyrics, viewers are asked to identify songs by singing a line or two of the tune. Your audience will either love it or run the program chairperson out of town…

Run Time: 37 minutes

#126 More Sing Along With Stamps

For groups whose audiences appreciated the related program (No. 125) "Sing Along With Stamps," this one offers more of the same — that is, more stamps, all suggesting songs, with viewers asked to identify them based on clues ranging from titles to a few words of lyrics. Viewers are then asked to sing a line or two of the tune. Show this or the other program for a fun-filled spouses-and-family-night event.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#127 Slips on Ships on Stamps

The design errors illustrated in this topical program range from the same ship appearing twice on one stamp (intended to depict two different ships) to a view of Columbus holding a telescope more than a hundred years before it was invented. This program combines a popular topic with the interesting twist of design errors and is ideal for general audiences.

Run Time: 32 minutes

#128 Airships of The United States

This program shows the range of Zeppelin use in the United States, from entertaining crowds at state fairs to deployment by the U.S. Navy and Army. The program will be interesting to collectors of air mail and/or U.S. material, as well as to U.S. history buffs in general, and contains a nice mix of items, including cacheted covers, photographic views of specific airships, swatches of material, and broadsides.

Run Time: 23 minutes

#129 Invisible Stamps: U.S. Embossed Revenues

Embossed revenues, a lesser known part of philately, offer a rich perspective on the early history of America. Used on documents to show payment of tax, the stamps were impressed by a die, much like a modern notary seal. Revenue stamp collectors will appreciate the program, and general audiences will be fascinated with the examples shown, such as an arrest warrant for a colonial draft dodger; a court judgment sending a poor soul to "debtor's prison"; papers related to the famous British Stamp Act; and even an estate inventory list that includes a slave "named Jude, sickly."

Run Time: 42 minutes

#130 Philippine Islands Maritime Mail

This program covers a wide variety of usages, including both ship- and land-based post offices. Ship-based, or sea post offices, were on both commercial ships and those of the U.S. Navy. Land-based offices were associated with either the U.S. Navy or Marines, or with port-of-arrival post offices and packet boats. All these varieties of postal usage, from both the territorial and independent-country eras, are illustrated.

Run Time: 28 minutes

#131 Cancellations of The U.S. Banknote Era: 1870-1894

This program covers all types of cancellations found on materials from the Banknote era. They form an impressive and diverse collection, ranging from the traditional hand-carved corks to privately manufactured fancy killers to the forerunners of today's highly automated machine cancels. Examples are shown on cover, as well as in sets according to style. A few commercial advertisements aid in the discussion of various postal regulations.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#132 In Violation of The Rules

For as long as the Post Office has had rules and regulations, people have violated them, intentionally or not. These violations have included various forms of nonpayment of postage, intentional underpayment, and improper usage of stamps. Some violations were caught by postal employees; others were not. Based on the award-winning exhibit of the same name, this enjoyable program provides a rich, creative view of postal history. Interesting examples include a German Hitler-head stamp successfully used to carry a U.S. cover; a North Korean forgery of a U.S. meter impression produced as part of a propaganda campaign; and a hand-drawn parody of the U.S. 6-cent Navy Jack commemorative, accepted for postage.

Run Time: 37 minutes

#133 More In Violation of The Rules

This is a further look at violations of Post Office rules and regulations. The violations deal with improprieties involving prohibited contents, markings, envelopes, and destinations, as well as violations committed by postal employees themselves doing their duty. As with Program 132, this presentation is based on an award-winning exhibit that includes an egg-on-face cover; attempted World War II-era mail from the U.S. to Japan; deceptive messages on envelopes; creative methods of paying postage; improper handling of registered mail by Post Office employees; and several scam mailings.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#134 A History of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Through Stamps

The SMOM, dedicated to charitable and medical service throughout the world, was established 1,000 years ago. Its members were involved in the Crusades and the American actions against piracy in the Mediterranean, and provided relief services during both World Wars. For a while, they even had their own independent country. This program tells the story of the Order, which has been depicted on the stamps of many countries, and also issues its own. The program is a shortened version of the video program VC6, described on page 24.

Run Time: 44 minutes

#135 Stamp Collecting: Your Key to The World

This introductory program is designed to whet the appetites of prospective collectors. It is short enough to stay within the attention span of youths, but will also appeal to adult audiences. The program's message is simple: the hobby is fun — and easy. It describes stamps as miniature pictures and shows how they can serve as an inexpensive way to visit far-off places, travel back in history, meet famous people, or gather collections of animals, birds, trains, and more. While the program stresses why stamp collecting is so exciting, it also mentions briefly some of the tools and techniques of the hobby. Many Chapters use this program for special meetings or events designed to attract the general public to our hobby.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#136 Stamp Collecting; Earning a Merit Badge in This Fascinating Hobby

This program is designed to help introduce Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts to our hobby, and reviews the specific requirements of the Boy Scout merit badge, as well as some general facets of our hobby. It discusses the how-to's and tools of collecting, types of stamps and collections, and more. It also reviews the development of our postal service, the differences between our service and that of other countries, and specific tips for getting started in collecting.

Run Time: 45 minutes

#137 Canadian Booklets and Booklet Panes: 190-1928

This program deals with Canadian booklet issues in particular, and booklet collecting in general. The program offers an impressive variety, both mint and postally used. Illustrations portray printing and assembly methods, different combinations of stamps in the various booklets, means of understanding Canada's bilingualism, and a number of different usages.

Run Time: 34 minutes

#138 Canadian Booklets and Booklet Panes: 1928-1936

This program continues the story of twentieth-century Canadian booklet issues, and discusses, as before, the parts of both a booklet and a booklet pane, the various issues, and their postal usage. A wide range of examples, mint and used, including varieties, is illustrated. In the process, Canadian stamp production during the period is reviewed.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#139 British Commonwealth Revenue Stamps

This program features finely printed, often colorful revenue stamps of the Commonwealth. A variety of stamps are reviewed, which taxed common items, such as documents, hunting licenses, and cigarettes, as well as less common ones, such as hair powder, theater tickets, and licenses to operate a radio or own a dog. It also focuses on the usage of such stamps, as mint copies are often hard to find. Definitions of the basic types of revenue stamps are offered, as are collecting hints.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#140 Collecting First Day Ceremony Programs

Many collectors, even those who focus on first day covers, do not consider the challenging sideline of first day ceremonies and their printed programs. This program provides an interesting tour of actual ceremonies and reviews the printed programs and stamps and covers involved. The parts of a printed program are discussed, as is the development of program content and style over the years. For those who have never attended such a ceremony, this program takes them there. It appeals to general audiences, too, as it looks at the "people side" of stamps and stamp collecting.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#142 Crisis in The Gulf

The Persian Gulf crisis of the early 1990s riveted the attention of the world. This dramatic war fought between Iraq and the U.S.-led coalition of several dozen countries involved many aspects, including the possibility of Iraqi aggression against Saudi Arabia and Iranian aggression against international oil shipments. This program covers the entire long-running crisis and focuses on both related military mail and many of the author's hand-painted cachets. The cachets include a number with entertaining commentary and humor.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#143 To Smoke or Not to Smoke -- On Stamps

Whatever your viewpoint on this controversial subject, you will find your position well-represented on postage stamps, postal meter impressions, slogan cancellations, and cachets. Promoters on both sides of the issue have used creative methods. This topical program discusses the history of smoking, the production of tobacco products, the involvement of smoking in our culture, and reviews the pros and cons of whether to indulge or not.

Run Time: 38 minutes

#144 Getting Started in Stamp Collecting

This how-to program is designed to introduce beginning collectors to our hobby. It discusses the how-to's and tools of collecting, types of stamps and collections, and more. After a brief introduction to the hobby, it reviews the development of our postal service, differences between our service and that of other countries, and offers specific tips for getting started, including how to choose an album. Similar to Program 135, "Stamp Collecting: Your Key to the World," this program focuses less on attracting noncollectors to the hobby and more on getting already-interested people started. It can be used with adult groups of noncollectors, to whet their appetites and introduce the how-to's — a good outreach program for youth or adults!

Run Time: 45 minutes

#145 Fundamentals of Thematic Exhibiting

This program demonstrates the fundamentals of preparing a competitive thematic exhibit. It illustrates successful exhibiting techniques and also covers judging competitive exhibits.

Run Time: 24 minutes

#146 Pennsylvania Post Office Murals of The 1930s and '40s

Murals in post offices were one small portion of the New Deal programs initiated by the presidential administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Although this program features murals in Pennsylvania post offices only, many other states' post offices have them as well. This program will appeal to a broad audience and may be viewed with interest from several angles, including American history, art, and of course the postal connection. Deterioration of the murals is a major concern of the author's. This program is a start at preserving the murals themselves and increasing awareness of the history behind them.

Run Time: 24 minutes

#147 Coconuts! The Story of The Coconut Palm

The author of this program uses a variety of philatelic elements to relate — in an enjoyable, sometimes humorous fashion — the facts and fiction behind the coconut palm. The coconut palm is a classic symbol of the tropics, yet viewers may be surprised at the myths the author dispels, and also to learn about its origins, spread to other countries, and economic importance in various countries. This is a great way for clubs in the north, in the grip of winter, to make a temporary escape to the tropics.

Run Time: 15 minutes

#148 Tonga Tin Mail

Transportation of mail between the Pacific island of Tonga and passing ships began in the late 1800s, not as a publicity stunt, but as a necessity, due to the island's lack of safe harbor for ships. Later, with the entrepreneurial spirits of Messrs. Quensell and Ramsay reigning, many and varied cacheted covers were created, to the delight of today's cover collectors. This program explains and illustrates the history of the island, how and why Tin Can Mail service began, and changes in the system that developed through the years (due to such things as volcanic eruptions and shark attacks) until 1983, when air mail made Tin Can Mail obsolete.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#148 Tonga Tin Mail

Transportation of mail between the Pacific island of Tonga and passing ships began in the late 1800s, not as a publicity stunt, but as a necessity, due to the island's lack of safe harbor for ships. Later, with the entrepreneurial spirits of Messrs. Quensell and Ramsay reigning, many and varied cacheted covers were created, to the delight of today's cover collectors. This program explains and illustrates the history of the island, how and why Tin Can Mail service began, and changes in the system that developed through the years (due to such things as volcanic eruptions and shark attacks) until 1983, when air mail made Tin Can Mail obsolete.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#149 The Aristocrats of U.S. First Day Covers

This program displays a selection of legendary U.S. first day covers owned by Alan Berkun. Some of these gems had never been exhibited until APS STAMPSHOW 97 in Milwaukee, where they were shown in the Court of Honor. The adjective "unique" is often misused in the philatelic marketplace, but in this program, when the word "unique" is used, it is always according to the dictionary definition: that is, being the only one, without an equal. Many of these covers are the basis of the listings and prices for first day covers in the 1998 Scott Specialized Catalogue of U.S. Stamps.

Run Time: 48 minutes

#149 The Aristocrats of U.S. First Day Covers

This program displays a selection of legendary U.S. first day covers owned by Alan Berkun. Some of these gems had never been exhibited until APS STAMPSHOW 97 in Milwaukee, where they were shown in the Court of Honor. The adjective "unique" is often misused in the philatelic marketplace, but in this program, when the word "unique" is used, it is always according to the dictionary definition: that is, being the only one, without an equal. Many of these covers are the basis of the listings and prices for first day covers in the 1998 Scott Specialized Catalogue of U.S. Stamps.

Run Time: 48 minutes

#150 Minerals on Stamps

This program combines two of the author's hobbies: stamp collecting and mineral collecting. It does not show all mineral stamps issued by all countries, but gives a general idea of what has been issued. Included are minerals of importance in industry and for gemstones. Mineral specimens are from the author's collection.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#151 What Are Revenues?

With interest in revenues increasing in philatelic circles, this program serves as an excellent introduction to the subject, dispelling confusion as to the nature of revenues. The author considers two major aspects of revenues, their authority and purpose, and many examples of the various types of revenues and their usages are illustrated, explained, and placed in their historical context.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#151 What Are Revenues?

With interest in revenues increasing in philatelic circles, this program serves as an excellent introduction to the subject, dispelling confusion as to the nature of revenues. The author considers two major aspects of revenues, their authority and purpose, and many examples of the various types of revenues and their usages are illustrated, explained, and placed in their historical context.

Run Time: 29 minutes

#152 Anatolia, or Turkey in Asia

This program explores the postal issues of a country in Asia Minor that existed for approximately four years following World War I. Although some people use the cumbersome title "Turkey in Asia," to the Turks who called it "home," the land was known more fondly as Anadolu, or Anatolia. Follow along and see how history affects and determines the postal issues of this proud and interesting nation in transition.

Run Time: 27 minutes

#153 The Sun Never Sets on Mickey Mouse: Walt Disney's Worldwide Empire

No emblem of the Twentieth Century is more universal than Mickey Mouse, and all of Walt Disney's biographers call his achievement an empire — one could call it the first truly global empire, as his influence is seen on postal issues of many nations. This program, based upon the exhibit of the same name, takes us on a postal and philatelic journey through Walt Disney's world, beginning with his family's origins in France, through World War II, and alongside the development of animated film, synchronized sound movies, ending with the climax of Disney's career — the creation of Disneyland (Anaheim, CA) and Disney World (Orlando, FL).

Run Time: 33 minutes

#154 When U.S. President's Die -- U.S.P.S. Responds When Presidents Die

This program covers the philatelic past of presidents who died in or out of office. The Presidents are shown in five different categories depending on the time of death. Another interesting concept is based on time lapse from date of death.

Run Time: 21 minutes

#155 The World of Bamboo

This slide presentation is based on the author's one-frame exhibit about bamboo, an excellent example of thematic exhibiting. The program shows many varieties of bamboo as depicted on stamps of many countries; illustrates some of the many and varied uses of bamboo — from construction of ships and buildings to tattoo needles and Oriental food! —; and explains bamboo's versatility and potential as a renewable resource. The author incorporates various types of philatelic material into the program, including cancellations, meter stamps, and postal stationery items, as well as individual stamps.

Run Time: 20 minutes

#156 Designing The U.S. State Birds and Flowers Issue of 1982

The set of fifty State Birds and Flowers stamps of 1982 appeals to lovers of birds and flowers, admirers of fine art, stamp collectors, and residents of every U.S. state. This slide program is based upon the perspective of Alan Singer, part of the father-son team of artists that designed the fifty stamps. The audience will get a privileged look behind the scenes to see the evolution of some of the bird and flower designs created for the fifty states. The program shows how an idea for a stamp issue becomes a reality, and how two major elements of stamp design come into play, i.e., the creativity of the artists and the guidelines of the U.S. Postal Service.

Run Time: 17 minutes

#157 Free Belgium: Postal Service in Unoccupied Belgium During World War I

This program uses stamps, covers, and related material to show some of what happened to unoccupied Belgium during World War I. We begin with August 2, 1914, when Germany demanded unimpeded transit of Belgium to attack France. Belgium's response showed courage and principle.

Run Time: 15 minutes

#157 Free Belgium: Postal Service in Unoccupied Belgium During World War I

This program uses stamps, covers, and related material to show some of what happened to unoccupied Belgium during World War I. We begin with August 2, 1914, when Germany demanded unimpeded transit of Belgium to attack France. Belgium's response showed courage and principle.

Run Time: 15 minutes

#159 Israel

This program consists of a general overview of the postal history of Israel, stamps, tabs, souvenir sheets, and some covers. Also included are some commemorative stamps of Israel; such as the first issue of stamps of Israel in 1948, the 75th anniversary of the Universal Postal Union in 1949, the 6th anniversary of the State of Israel, and ending with the Golden Anniversary of Israel being celebrated with a souvenir page that includes the Declaration of Independence of the State of Isreal, along with a reproduction of the signers of the declaration.

Run Time: 14 minutes

#160 Ryukyu

This program consists of a brief overview of the geography and the stamps of Ryukyu. Ryukyu is divided into three main sections: the Amami Islands, the Okinawa Islands, and the Sakishima Islands. This program consists of commemoratives, surcharges, the first airmail stamps, overprints, and registered covers from the three sections of Ryukyu.

Run Time: 17 minutes

#161 International Organizations on Stamps

In a previous program (No. 101), the author reviewed the histories of the United Nations organization and its stamps. This program expands upon the history of the U.N. by including stamps that relate to specialized agencies within the U.N., such as the International Labour Office (ILO), World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the Universal Postal Union (UPU). It begins with the early Swiss overprints created for use by the League of Nations; continues through the establishment of the U.N. offices in New York, Geneva, and Vienna; and ends in 1984 with the UPU centenary celebration. The program features not only U.N. stamps, but commemorative stamps of many countries, as well as first day covers and special cancels.

Run Time: 22 minutes

#162 Down Under

This program was prepared by a retired mining company executive from Darien, Connecticut. This program covers the mining industry in Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific Islands since the early 1950's. The program captures some of the romance in a philatelic format that was associated with mineral activities in this expansive area of the world up to about 1950.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#163 South of the Border

The extraction of mineral commodities has been a very important industry in most of the Latin American countries from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego. This Special Study presentation captures some of the romance in a philatelic format that has been associated with these mineral activities from the 1600s up to about 1950.

Run Time: 20 minutes

#163 South of the Border

The extraction of mineral commodities has been a very important industry in most of the Latin American countries from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego. This Special Study presentation captures some of the romance in a philatelic format that has been associated with these mineral activities from the 1600s up to about 1950.

Run Time: 20 minutes

#164 Old King Coal

Coal was king of the energy markets well into the 20th century, when petroleum, natural gas, water power, and nuclear energy became alternate fuel sources. This presentation shows some of the philatelic romance associated with the coal industry.

Run Time: 25 minutes

#167 Ken-Ya-Dig-It

This program - prepared by Kenneth Kutz of Darien, Connecticut, a retired mining company executive - explores the mining history of the African continent, covering the mining period from 1800 to 1950. During that time many large mineral deposits were discovered. The slide program presents a variety of covers and cachets from several mining fields.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#168 Western Roundup

James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill in Alta, California, in January 1848, unleashing a torrent of prospectors that scoured the West in the next fifty years looking for payable deposits. This program presents a variety of covers and cachets associated with mineral activities in the West.

Run Time: 26 minutes

#169 Black Gold

Colonel Edwin L. Drake "struck oil" on August 27, 1859, in the small town of Titusville, Pennsylvania. The oil industry took off from there, becoming one of the world's greatest industiral enterprises. This program depicts covers, cachets, and postcards from the industry in a philatelic format.

Run Time: 21 minutes

#170 Eastern States Parade

Mining commodities has been one of the most important activities leading to the massive industrialization in the Eastern part of the United States. This program covers mining activities in this expansive area of the United States, and presents a variety of covers and cachets from several of the mining fields from the mid-1800s to the early 1900s.

Run Time: 22 minutes

#174 Life Through The Ages

This program will show the evolution of life through geological time by showing fossils on stamps. Many fossils found in one country have been shown on stamps from another country. The actual fossil specimens come from the collection of Henry Fisher, who has been collecting them for many years.

Run Time: 23 minutes

#175 New York Stock Transfer Tax Bulls and Bears

As a collector, you probably are more interested in the bulls than the bears. Although most transfer tax stamps are penny stamps today, many merit further study. This program investigates the transfer tax throughout the 20th century.

Run Time: 25 minutes

#180 Holograms in Philately

Austria released the first hologram in the world in 1988. Holograms now appear on revenue stamps, cachets, and postal stationery. Study how holograms are made and see examples of postal holography form its inception through 2000

Run Time: 28 minutes

#181 The Penny Postal: Gone But Still Collectible

The Penny Postal: Gone But Still Collectible. This slide program introduces US postal cards produced during the 1873 – 1952 period when the domestic 1st class postal card rate was one cent. Like stamps, postal cards were issued and reissued, production efforts varied, card stock fluctuated, and press technology advanced. As a result, many collectible varieties exist today. The cards are presented in the chronological order, as they were issued. Available in Slide or Digital Powerpoint with Audio, which can be purchased from the APS MarketPlace.

Run Time: 28 minutes

#181 The Penny Postal: Gone But Still Collectible

The Penny Postal: Gone But Still Collectible. This slide program introduces US postal cards produced during the 1873 – 1952 period when the domestic 1st class postal card rate was one cent. Like stamps, postal cards were issued and reissued, production efforts varied, card stock fluctuated, and press technology advanced. As a result, many collectible varieties exist today. The cards are presented in the chronological order, as they were issued. Available in Slide or Digital Powerpoint with Audio, which can be purchased from the APS MarketPlace.

Run Time: 28 minutes

#300 A Visit to The National Postal Museum

The National Postal Museum houses and displays the nation's postal history and philatelic collection. Sit back and buckle up as this program takes you on a mini tour, highlighting the permanent exhibits displayed in the Museum.

Run Time: 34 minutes

#301 By the Seat of Their Pants: The Early Years of The Air Mail Service

From 1918 to 1927 a small band of pilots flew nearly 14 million miles delivering letters across the U.S. The lure of flying drew them to their profession, but the threat of death was their constant companion. Follow the evolution of the early Air Mail Service through this National Postal Museum program.

Run Time: 38 minutes

#302 Owney: The Traveling Dog

Owney, that terrier-mix mutt who rode the rails with railway mail clerks, claimed the hearts of many Americans over 100 years ago. He traveled into over 30 states, accompanying the mail as it moved by rail. You, too, can travel with Owney through this NPM developed program.

Run Time: 24 minutes

#303 History of the Railway Mail Service

From the 1860s to the 1970s billions of pieces of mail traveled from sender to receiver through the hands of Railway Post Office clerks. Follow the evolution of the early Railway Mail Service to its demise through this National Postal Museum program.

Run Time: 30 minutes

#303 History of the Railway Mail Service

From the 1860s to the 1970s billions of pieces of mail traveled from sender to receiver through the hands of Railway Post Office clerks. Follow the evolution of the early Railway Mail Service to its demise through this National Postal Museum program.

Run Time: 30 minutes

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