Ukrainian Philatelist No. 115 (2016)
Ukraine’s “Vienna Issue”: A Nine-Decade Journey to Postal Fulfillment
To read Part 2 of this article click here.
It has been more than a quarter century since a major article about the 1920 Vienna Issue appeared in the Ukrainian Philatelist. During that time a number of significant new discoveries have been made, and the original artwork was reused to create modern-day stamp-on-stamp versions. This article aims to bring readers up to date with these developments and to summarize everything that is known about this popular stamp release.
Perhaps the most beloved of all the postal issues from Ukraine’s first 20th-century period of independence (1917-1920), the Vienna pictorial set of 1920 remains an extraordinary representation of the Ukrainian national character.1 In its 14 scenes are expressed the symbols of the newly-independent nation: the trident emblem, the azure-yellow flag, the national musical instrument the bandura, and the Parliament building. In addition, there are portraits of some of the great men who helped shape the Ukrainian nation during the thousand years from its emergence as a European power in the 10th century to its 20th century reestablishment. Other stamps show aspects of the Cossack heritage so instrumental in forging the Ukrainian love of freedom, while several depict scenes of the rural life so typical of Ukraine during the early part of the 20th century. To complete the truly national effect, each stamp is bordered by a typical Ukrainian folk design (either embroidery or weave).
Lamentably, of all the stamp issues authorized by Ukrainian governments during this initial three-year interval of independence, it is the superb Vienna Issue that was never released. The story of how this set of stamps first came to be produced, how it acquired its unusual name, and how eventually it was able to complete the postal role for which it was intended will be detailed in the following pages.
It was only in the mid-1980s that the original artwork for this stamp set was “discovered” in Vienna, Austria.2 All of the stamp designs, except for the 1-hryvnia and 60-hryven values, consisted of two separate parts: the frame and the vignette (center picture). The reason for this separation was to facilitate the use of the same frame for more than one value, substituting only the vignette and numerals of value. Three frames were reused this way. The 3-hryvni and 5-hryven frame designs are identical as are those for the 15- and 20-hryven values. The same basic frame was used for the 2-, 10-, 30-, and 50-hryven values but it was altered slightly to accommodate the different vignette designs. Most vignettes bear a handwritten notation on the reverse sanctioning the particular design, along with the date of approval and signatures. The following signatures appear on most designs: P. Soroka, a former director of the Kyiv Postal-Telegraph District; M.Sekretar; and I. Szmatko.
By early 1920, the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR) – which had declared its independence only two years before on 22 January 19183 – was in desperate straits (Figure 1). Large areas of Ukraine were occupied by Russian Bolshevik armies while Ukrainian forces were being pushed steadily westwards. On 22 April 1920, an alliance was formed between the UNR and the newly established Polish Government. The aim of the agreement was to restore Ukrainian sovereignty with Polish assistance. A joint Ukrainian-Polish campaign was launched and by June of 1920 the regions of Podilia and Volyn were recaptured, as well as parts of Kherson and the Kyiv region.
1. It may seem incongruous to have a Ukrainian stamp release named after the capital of another country, but the appellation is very widely used and is entirely apropos as this article will explain. I have occasionally seen these stamps referred to as the History of Ukraine set, but that title is somewhat inappropriate since only half of the 14 stamp subjects actually depict historical Ukrainian personages or events.
2. The descriptions of the artwork in this article are from original material in the possession of the author. How the items were acquired is explained later in the text.
3. Ukraine became de facto independent from Soviet Russia on 20 November 1917 with the issuance of the Third Universal creating the Ukrainian National Republic. De jure independence occurred with the proclamation of the Fourth Universal in January 1918 in which all ties with Russia were severed.
It was under these confusing and fast-moving conditions that the UNR Government, meeting in the Polish city of Tarnow, resolved to replace all postage stamps then in use on Ukrainian territories with a new definitive issue. The decision to create new stamps – made on 27 August 1920 – was conveyed to the Ukrainian Trade Mission in Vienna, Austria for implementation. The designs for the stamps were prepared with unusual speed by the famous Ukrainian artist Mykola Ivasiuk, then living in Vienna. He agreed to undertake the project without
pay, provided that he receive a certain percentage of the finished stamps. Over a period of three months, 14 excellent designs – ranging in value from 1-hryvnia to 200-hryven – were painstakingly drawn4. The artwork for the 1-hryvnia stamp was ready and approved on 23 September 1920, while the designs for subsequent values were completed and approved by 2 December.
Half of the vignette artwork – the 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 30-, 50-, and 80-hryven designs – likely consists of original
renderings by the artist. The remaining examples are based on portraits of prominent historical figures
or on photographs. Stamp production was carried out at the Military Geographic Institute of Vienna in
late 1920. The completed set is known today as the Vienna Issue (Figure 2).
4. At this time two hryvni equaled one Russian ruble, 2.54 Austrian kronen (crowns), or 2.16 German marks.
1-hryvnia, olive-gray: The vignette depicts a large trident (tryzub), the emblem of Ukraine (Figure 3). Tridents have been found on Ukrainian territories among archaeological finds dating back to the first century A. D. This emblem was undoubtedly a mark of authority and a mystic symbol of one or several of the ethnic groups that inhabited ancient Ukrainian territory. Grand Prince Volodymyr (Vladimir) the Great (r. 980 - 1015), ruler of the Kyivan Rus Empire - medieval predecessor of modern Ukraine - adopted the trident as his heraldic device. The symbol appears on coins minted during his reign, as well as on those of several of his successors.
The trident was officially adopted as the Ukrainian emblem on 22 March 1918 by the Ukrainian Central Rada or Parliament. At least one trident is incorporated into every stamp of the Vienna Issue. The frame ornamentation, consisting of a Ukrainian embroidery design, was drawn together with the vignette. This design, along with that of the 60-hryven value, were the only ones prepared as a unit; all other designs combined separate vignettes and frames. The 1-hryvnia stamp was approved by P. Soroka, M. Sekretar, and I. Szmatko (Figure 4). Printing: 2 million copies.
2-hryvni, slate lilac: The vignette depicts an allegorical figure of Ukraine in the form of a young woman dressed in an embroidered costume holding a Ukrainian flag (Figure 5). The flag – adopted the same day as the trident – consists of two horizontal bars: golden yellow above and azure (sky blue) below. The colors - subsequently reversed - are now taken to represent golden wheatfields under a blue sky. The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design and is the same as that for the 10-hryven stamp, except that the inner part of the lower frame on the 10-hryven (above the word ГРИВЕНЬ) was removed to accommodate the slightly larger vignette of the female figure in the 2-hryvni. The higher denomination stamp was, therefore, most likely designed (and perhaps printed) before this value. The original 2-hryvni vignette
has not been located (the only value other than the 100-hryven for which this is the case). Instead, the photograph of the original vignette design with some minor alterations (e.g., whiteouts of the two front buttons) survives. It is this photograph that was used in the final preparation of the stamp. No approval signatures appear on the frame or vignette. Printing: 4 million copies.
3-hryvni, yellow-orange: The vignette depicts a Ukrainian peasant cottage (khata) with garden (Figure 6A). These homes were constructed of clay bricks strengthened with chaff or straw admixtures; the roofs were of thatch. This khata has been described as the house of Taras Shevchenko from his youth (see biographic summary under the 20-hryven stamp description), but it differs conspicuously in structural details from an extant sketch Shevchenko made of his home and the connection is unlikely.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design, and is the same as that of the 5-hryven value. Two hexagonal pieces of card stock, labeled ‘3’ on one side and ‘5’ on the other, were used to indicate numerals of value in the lower frame corners of both the 3- and 5-hryven values.The 3-hryvni stamp was apparently printed after the 5-hryven because a hryvni label strip is pasted over the original hryven designation in the preserved artwork. The stamp design was approved on 6 November 1920 by P. Soroka, M. Sekretar, and I. Szmatko who signed the back of the vignette.
Both the original stamp design and an enlarged photograph with alterations survive. Similar to the 2-hryvni value, various areas of the photograph were whited over, in this case to simplify and “lighten” the design. These changes are particularly evident on the roofs of the buildings, the eaves, along the left fence, and in the background trees. In printing the stamps, the touched up and enlarged vignette was used with the original frame resulting in the scene’s foreground and left side being trimmed (Figure 6B). Printing: 4 million copies.
5-hryven, gray-green: The vignette depicts a chumak (trader) with a yoke of oxen, a familiar sight in the Ukrainian countryside from the 17th to mid-19th century (Figure 7). Chumaks used wagons to transport salt from Crimea and salted and dried fish from the Black and Azov Seas. The name chumak is derived from the term chum, which refers to the wooden container used for transporting salt and fish. During their heyday from the 17th - 19th centuries, chumaks controlled 50 percent of the salt trade in Ukraine. In the 1830s to the 1850s, these wagoners imported about 41,000 tons of fish each year. They carried wheat, farm products, and manufactured articles south into the steppe, Crimea, and Moldavia. With time chumaks became the main carriers of bulk cargo. They played an important role in Ukraine’s economy by promoting the development of internal and external trade. In the second half of the 19th century, the chumak trade began to decline as railways were built and steppe pasturage for oxen shrank.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design and is the same as the one used for the 3-hryvni stamp. The vignette was approvedby P. Soroka and M. Sekretar on 18 October 1920. Printing: 4 million copies.
10-hryven, red: The vignette depicts Bohdan Khmelnytsky (ca. 1595 - 6 August 1657). He was declared Hetman or Leader in 1648 by the Sich or Military Camp of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, who occupied the lower reaches of the Dnipro (Dnieper) River in eastern Ukraine. Khmelnytsky led the Cossacks to a series of brilliant victories that drove the Poles out of large areas of Ukraine and led to the establishment of the Hetman State (1648 to 1782).
The portrait is closely modeled after a 17th century engraving of the Cossack leader (Figure 8). Ivasiuk drew his figure wearing a robe and feathered headdress and holding the mace of authority (bulava) in exactly the same pose as the original (Figure 9). He even filled in the background with a cross-hatch pattern reminiscent of the engraving.
Changes made by Ivasiuk include simplifying the elaborate workmanship on the bulava, the buttons, and the throat clasp; and omitting the button loops on the right side of the cloak. In addition, the edging of the cloak was made to look like white fur (ermine?) and contrasts well with the lower chemise. Finally, a number of areas were shaded over with hatch lines.
A Ukrainian-language weekly newspaper entitled Volia (Will) that appeared in Vienna in January of 1921 ran an article about the Vienna Issue and included illustrations of the stamp designs. For the 10-hryven stamp, Khmelnytsky’s dates (1593 and 1657) appeared in the upper corners of the vignette, but it is doubtful whether the printing of such a version was ever attempted since no stamps with this variation are known to exist 5. A close examination of the original vignette drawing reveals that the dates were whited out and overdrawn with black cross hatching.
5. The Volia article also showed the entire 3-hryvni vignette design, i.e. with the left side and foreground of the scene intact.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design and is very similar to the frame
for the 2-hryvni stamp. On the 10-hryven, the entire inner portion of the frame design is in evidence (the
bottom part was removed on the 2-hryvni to accommodate the vignette). No approval designation appears
on the vignette. Printing: 20 million copies.
15-hryven, brown: The vignette depicts Ivan Mazepa (30 March 1639 - 2 October 1709). Proclaimed Hetman in 1687, Mazepa also served at thecourt of Czar Peter I. During his term as Cossack leader, he did much to improve the social conditions in Ukraine, allocating large sums of money for religious, educational, and cultural purposes. By 1705, weary of fending off the many impositions being made on Ukraine by the Czar, Mazepa entered into secret negotiations with Sweden. In 1708, the Swedish King Charles XII – who had invaded Russia
– was forced to veer from his march on Moscow and move into Ukraine. Mazepa then openly sided with his ally and was joined by the Zaporozhian Cossacks in March of 1709. A savage winter and other adversities, however, weakened the Swedish army during its stay in Ukraine. The subsequent defeat at Poltava on 8 July 1709 put an end to the plans of Mazepa and Charles: the two leaders fled to Turkish Bessarabia, where Mazepa died soon after.
The rendering on the 15-hryven Mazepa stamp is based on an oil painting by Osyp Kurylas that depicts the Cossack leader in full regalia. In the portrait, the Hetman wears a turban-like hat and an embroidered garment under a fur-collar coat (Figure 10). Ivasiuk probably felt that a stamp design closely modeled on the original would show the Hetman as too small a figure. He therefore decided to recreate only the upper half of the painting and produce a bust view that would more closely resemble the forms of Khmelnytsky and Shevchenko on the 10- and 20-hryven values respectively (Figure 11)
Other alterations made by the artist include a darkening
of the neck area, changes in the embroidery designs, and the addition of a lined background. The combination of stippling and lining on the face of Mazepa is much better than the simple hatching on the 10-hryven value. Unfortunately, this shading did not reduce to stamp size very well.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design in the form of crosses. Approval for the vignette by M. Sekretar and dated 12 October 1920 appears on the reverse of the frame for the 20-hryven stamp. The same frame design was used in preparing both the 15- and 20-hryven stamps, but for this value a “15” replaced the “20” numeral of value. Printing: 4 million copies.
20-hryven, steel blue: The vignette depicts Taras Shevchenko (9 March 1814 - 10 March 1861). One of the founders of modern Ukrainian literature both as a poet of remarkable genius and as a writer of stirring prose, Shevchenko was also a playwright, artist, and outspoken critic of social and national oppression. His writings and particularly his book of poems, Kobzar (The Bard, 1840), made an enormous contribution toward reawakening Ukrainian self-identification. Indeed, the national spiritual revival that Shevchenko inspired ultimately led to the reestablishment of Ukrainian statehood from 1917 to 1920.
Born a serf, Shevchenko was able to purchase his freedom with the aid of friends at age 24. For the next nine years he lived in peace in his homeland, able to write and paint. In 1847, Shevchenko was arrested by the Russian secret police and sentenced to hard military labor for his criticisms of the czarist state. Although forbidden to paint or write, Shevchenko continued to do so during his period of exile, which ultimately lasted ten years. By the time he returned to Ukraine at the age of 43 he was a broken man, old and spent. Undermined by misery and injustice, he lived just four more years.
The 20-hryven value showing Ukraine’s famous poet wearing a woolen hat is most likely modeled after an oil painting (Figure 12) by Ivan Kramskoy (1837-1887) presently in the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. As with the 15-hryven design, Ivasiuk only reproduced about half of the original painting in order to focus in on his subject’s facial features (Figure 13). The change in emphasis proved successful; this portrait is easily the most striking of the four in the Vienna Issue.
Kramskoy may have based his painting on a 1860 pen-and-ink self-portrait by Shevchenko (Figure 14). There is a chance that Ivasiuk used this sketch directly, but a number of details - ranging from the slight tilt of the poet’s head to the more mottled appearance of the coat collar - would seem to indicate that the oil painting served as the immediate source of the stamp.
The stamp frame was approved on 4 October 1920 by P. Soroka, M. Sekretar, and I. Szmatko. Approval for the 15-hryven stamp vignette of Ivan Mazepa – dated 12 October 1920 and signed only by M. Sekretar – also appears on the back of the 20-hryven stamp frame original since the same frame, a Ukrainian cross-stitch embroidery design, was used for the lower denomination. Printing: 20 million copies.
30-hryven, olive-brown: The vignette depicts Pavlo Polubotok (ca. 1660 - 29 December 1724). Becoming Hetman in 1722, Polubotok was a vigorous defender of Ukrainian autonomy. He soon came into conflict with the Little Russian Collegium – a governing body established by Czar Peter I – in its attempts to extend Russian hegemony over the entire Ukraine. Summoned to St. Petersburg in 1723 by the czar, Polubotok was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress in November 1723, where he died a year later. The vignette shows the Hetman in chains in his cell.
Two versions of the vignette survive. Close examination of “Design A” reveals that it is a photographic enlargement of “Design B” (the original drawing) to which some details have been added (Figure 15A). Apparently at some point in the preparation of the stamp it was felt that the figure of the Hetman was too small and needed to be enlarged. When the enlargement was adapted to print the stamp, part of the periphery of the original drawing (the water jug, bench corner, and the Hetman’s right boot) was lost to cropping (Figure 15 B).
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design and is very similar to that of the 2- and 10-hryven values. The difference is that almost all of the embroidery design was removed from the inner portion of the frame to accommodate the larger vignettes for this value as well as for the 50-hryven stamp. The remaining inner embroidery design was altered slightly from the way it appears on the 2- and 10-hryven values. The lower values, therefore, were certainly designed before the 30- and 50-hryven stamps; if plates were prepared and the stamps printed in the same order as the designs were approved, then it is quite plausible that the 30- and 50-hryven values were printed after the 2- and 10-hryven. Approval by M. Sekretar appears on the back of “Design A” and is dated 2 December 1920. Printing: 4 million copies.
40-hryven, claret: The vignette depicts Symon Petliura (10 May 1879 - 25 May 1926; Figure 16).
When a provisional Ukrainian Government was formed by the Central Rada (Parliament) on 28 June 1917, Petliura was designated Secretary for Military Affairs. On 11 February 1919, he was made Supreme Otaman (head of government) of the Ukrainian Directory, but was soon driven out of Kyiv by Soviet forces. In April of 1920, Petliura agreed to the Treaty of Warsaw with Poland, by which Western Ukraine was abandoned to the Poles in return for military aid against the Soviet army. The combined Ukrainian-Polish forces entered Kyiv on 7 May 1920, but the Soviets drove the allied army out some six weeks later and the Petliura government fled to Tarnow in Poland. Eventually the Ukrainian government-in-exile moved to Warsaw and then to Paris, where Petliura was assassinated by a Soviet agent in 1926.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design. P. Soroka and M. Sekretar approved the vignette on 12 October 1920. Printing: 20 million copies.
50-hryven, olive-green: The vignette depicts a Ukrainian Cossack sitting on the steppe playing a
bandura (Figure 17). This Ukrainian national instrument – similar in appearance and construction to a lute – has from 32 to 55 strings ranging through five octaves. Before the 19th century, the bandura had various shapes and tunings, but in recent times, it has been standardized. The majestic and beautiful sound of the bandura in some ways resembles that of the guitar – somewhat emphatic yet gentle.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian embroidery design and is the same as that used for the 30-hryven value. Approval by M. Sekretar dated 2 December 1920 appears on the back of the vignette. Printing: 5 million copies.
60-hryven, chestnut and dull purple: The vignette depicts the building in Kyiv where the Central Rada (Parliament) of the newly independent Ukrainian National Republic held its sessions (1917-1918). Designed by Pavlo Aloshyn, the structure was constructed between 1909 and 1911 and initially served as the Pedagogical Museum (1913-1917). Later, it housed various administrative offices; in 1921, it became the Museum of the Proletarian Revolution and in 1924, it was designated a seat of the Museum of Revolution. The building was enlarged in 1937 when side wings were added; it functioned as the V. I. Lenin Museum between 1938 and 1982. Still referred to as the Pedagogical Museum, it currently houses municipal and business offices.
The inspiration for the 60-hryven stamp is a 1918 photo post card (Figure 18A). The scene on the card is virtually identical to that on the stamp vignette design (Figure 18B). Both items show the building from exactly the same angle; in both the subject fills up most of the frame. The sun angle is also the same in both scenes, since the shadows fall in the same direction.
Changes made by the artist include the elimination of prosaic details in front of the building – a streetlight, a telegraph pole and wires, a coal pile, and several pedestrians – as well as the inscription and Romanov crest on the façade. The front lawn of the building was extended to include the entire foreground, while some details along the sides were deleted or simplified. Overhead, clouds were put into the sky by the use of stippling.
Careful observation and measurements of both the original photo and Ivasiuk’s drawing indicate that the artist “rebuilt” the Parliament Building to improve its dramatic impact. The front curve of Ivasiuk’s building is different and seems to put the left endpoint at a lower level than the corresponding point on the right. Elimination of the clutter around the building points out its kinship with the Pantheon in Rome. The reduction of the wings to favor the rotunda (see dimensions) also echoes the shape of the Pantheon.
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian tapestry (kilim) weave pattern (Figure 19). Only this stamp design and the 1-hryvnia illustration were prepared as one piece, all other designs combined separate vignettes and frames. Artwork approved by P. Soroka and M. Sekretar on 12 October 1920. Printing: 3 million copies.
80-hryven, greenish blue and brown: The vignette
depicts Zaporozhian Cossacks in chaiky (swift maneuverable boats) on the Black Sea. In the lead boat the standing figure carries a Cossack flag while the others row; another chaika on the horizon has raised a sail (Figure 20). Some large chaiky could hold 50 to 70 men and carry up to four small cannons. By means of these craft, Cossacks were able to make numerous daring forays against Turkish sailing vessels as well as against Turkish towns along the Black Sea coast. These expeditions not only netted great booty but also freed thousands of Christian slaves. The feats of these brave and hardy adventurers have been immortalized in songs and dumy (sung epic poems).
The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian kilim weave design. The vignette was approved on 2 December 1920 but not signed. Printing: 3 million copies.
100-hryven, blackish green and blue-green: The vignette depicts the monument to St. Volodymyr the Great (r. 980 - 1015), baptizer of Kyivan Rus, on the Right Bank of the Dnipro River in Kyiv. The statue overlooks that part of the river where, according to tradition, the pagan townspeople of Kyiv were baptized en masse in 988. The bronze monument with its elaborate pedestal is 20.4 meters (66 feet) high; it was unveiled on 23 September 1853.
As with the 60-hryven stamp earlier, the idea for the 100-hryven vignette may have originated with a postcard. The postcard in Figure 21 shows the monument from behind and from virtually the same angle as the stamp. The sun angle too seems to be the same and the shadows all lie in the same direction (to the left). The artist, then, may have used this card or one very similar to it. However, in composing his scene, he left out details on the promenade surrounding the memorial, in the building on the far hill, and along the near and far river shorelines.
Three vignettes were prepared for this stamp. The original vignette has not been located; it was photographed,
however, mounted on cardboard, and touched up with white ink. It is this latter version, described as “Design B,” that survives (Figure 22). Changes between “Design B” and the original vignette design include more white added to the leaves of the trees and some minor alterations of the pedestal. Despite the alterations, “Design B” was apparently still not satisfactory and a less-detailed “Design A” was prepared; it is this version that was used in printing the stamp (Figure 23). This stamp and the 200-hryven value were the only instances where an entirely new vignette was drawn by the artist.
Separate approval signatures (dated 6 November 1920) – by P. Soroka, I. Szmatko, and M. Sekretar – appear on the bottom right front of both the card bearing the “Design B” vignette and on the “Design A” frame. (On all other artwork for this issue, official approvals appear on the reverse.) Why the “Design A” vignette was adopted instead of the approved “Design B” remains unclear but may have been brought about by the limitations of the available printing equipment. “Design B” may simply have been too complex a scene to be properly reproduced. The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian kilim weave design. Printing: 6 million copies.
200-hryven, olive-grey and burgundy (deep carmine-red): The vignette depicts a rural scene with grain fields and a windmill. The mill is of a style found in the Poltava region of Ukraine and is of an older “post mill” type where the entire mill structure revolves upon one great central vertical post - pushed around by a pole protruding from the rear of the mill. In this way the mill could be turned so that the sails always faced squarely into the wind6.
Two vignettes were produced for the 200-hryven value: an original more detailed “Design B” (Figure 24B) and a simpler “Design A” (Figure 24C); the latter was eventually used to print the stamp. In this case, both the frame and “Design B” vignette were originally drawn on one card and, according to the inscription, approved together on 6 November 1920. The approval statement and signatures – by P. Soroka, M. Sekretar, and I. Szmatko – appear primarily on the “Design B” vignette but also overlap onto the frame. The “design B” vignette was subsequently cut out and replaced with “Design A.” The substitution is obvious since the new “Design A” vignette, unsigned, adjoins the now-mutilated signatures on the frame. The reason for the substitution is not known but may have been necessitated by the over-abundance of detail in “Design B,” which could not be reproduced in the printing process. The frame ornamentation consists of a Ukrainian kilim weave design.
The inspiration for the stamp came from a photograph of an old windmill available to the artist and that I located in Volume 1 of Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia on page 296 under the entry “Material Folk Culture” (Figure 24A). Striking similarities between the photo and stamp designs include: the same angle of view, a ladder with four rungs on the left side, a porch supported by three beams and having only one cross railing, three holes (vents?); two in the gable and one next to the door, the door set slightly left of center, the grains of wood planks all running in the same direction, one plank missing along the bottom of the side, and deep shadows in virtually identical locations. The major change made by the artist was to redraw the sails. He also straightened most of the vertical lines to make the mill look less dilapidated.
Mykola Ivasiuk apparently devoted more time to the planning of the 200-hryven stamp than any other: two different numeral and inner frame schemes were initially prepared (Figure 25). The rejected ideas were later overlain by trimmed pieces of cardboard made to resemble the sanctioned design (see Figure 26). Final printing: 1 million copies.
6. Newer windmills in Ukraine used the Dutch system where only the roof moved.
- Bylen, Peter. “The 1920 Vienna Issue: Some Observations.” The Southern Collector No. 9 (1997)
34-35. (About large- and small-hole perforation varieties.)
2. Epstein, Alexander. “More Ukrainica Miscellany: Classical Issues.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 84
(2001): 44-48. (About the 12½ perforation variety.)
3. Hugel, Lubomyr M. “Ukraine - The Vienna Issue of 1920.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 49 (1986):
10-14. (First report of “Design A” and “Design B” versions for the 30-, 100-, and 200-hryven
4. Hugel, Lubomyr M. “Possible Forgeries of the 1920 ‘Vienna Issue’.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 58
5. Kuzych, Ingert. “A Serendipitous Discovery.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 53/54 (1988): 60.
(Discovery of the photo used in designing the 200-hryven vignette.)
6. Kuzych, Ingert. “More Serendipitous Discoveries.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 57 (1990): 23-27.
(Tracking down the sources for the 10-, 15-, 20-, and 60-hryven vignettes.)
7. Kuzych, Ingert. “Ukraine’s Pictorial Set of 1920: The Vienna Issue.” Ukrainian Philatelist No. 58
8. Kuzych, Ingert and Val Zabijaka. “The Postal Issues of 1920: New Information.” Ukrainian
Philatelist No. 82 (2000): 14-18. (Details about the Vienna Issue authenticity certificate.)
9. Kuzych, Ingert. “Vienna Issue Redux: A Ninety Year Journey to Acceptance.” Ukrainian Philatelist
No. 104 (2010): 58-65.
10. MacGregor, Alexander. “From Vienna to Kiev: Artistic Influences on the 1920 Ukrainian Pictorials.”
Ukrainian Philatelist No. 57 (1990): 9-22.
11. Muggeridge, Donald W. “More on the 200 Hryven Windmill Stamp.” Ukrainian Philatelist
No. 51 (1987): 2.
12. Muggeridge, Donald W. “The Windmill Stamp of the 1920 Vienna Issue.” Ukrainian Philatelist
No. 53/54 (1988): 54-59.
13. “Novi Poshtovi Marky U.N.R.” (New Postage Stamps of the U.N.R.). Volia Vol. 1 No. 1 (1 January 1921):
13-14. Reprinted in Ukrainian Philatelist No. 37-38 (1975): 41-42. (The first announcement of
the completion of the Vienna Issue.)
14. Semeniuk, Roman and John Semeniuk. “Money Drama Has Stamp Connections.” Ukrainian
Philatelist No. 60A (1991): 60-61. (About Pavlo Polubotok and the 30-hryven stamp.)
15. Turyn, Ivan. “Ukrainske Narodnie Mystetstvo na Poshtovykh Markakh” (Ukrainian National
Artistry on Postage Stamps). Ukrainian Philatelist Vol. 1 No. 4 (April 1925): 3-4. (About the folk
designs incorporated into each stamp of the Vienna Issue.)To read Part 2 of this article click here.